Three hundred and sixty years after his execution, an iconic painting of Illiam Dhone from the Manx National Heritage art collection is travelling to the United Kingdom for specialist study.
Painted at a time when the Isle of Man was owned and ruled by the Earl of Derby and his family, the grand portrait is the only known likeness of this important Manx figure, who was shot for treason at Hango Hill in 1663.
The painting will be transported to Harrogate this week, where it will be studied under infrared light with the help of art analysts Tager Stonor Richardson in the studios of Francis J Downing Ltd, an accredited studio specialising in cleaning and conserving paintings.
Infrared imaging is a non-destructive technique used to detect hidden details under the upper layers of paintings, such as added paint, underdrawings, and hidden signatures, revealing evidence of an artist’s creative processes, alterations, reworking and different types of pigments.
Chris Weeks, Collections Care and Conservation Manager at Manx National Heritage said:
“The infrared study will help us see through paint layers that are impenetrable to the human eye. For example, if the artist started work in carbon black on a white ground (known as an underdrawing), the original sketch will be revealed, which would be very exciting.
This process will help us learn what has happened to the painting over almost four centuries since it was painted and will provide an accurate insight into its original colours, which are heavily impacted by aging. We may even answer one of the great mysteries of the portrait: who painted it?”.
Manx National Heritage extends its thanks to the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company for their generosity in meeting the cost of transporting the painting to the United Kingdom, aptly on-board Manxman, and to members of the public who have kindly contributed towards some of the costs to study of the painting.
Brian Thomson, Managing Director said:
“We are delighted to be able to make another contribution to the Isle of Man’s Arts Heritage. The Company is a proud supporter of the Island’s arts scene, as demonstrated in our recent commissioning and installation of various artwork from 15 local artists on board Manxman. We pride ourselves on our community support and being able to play our part in restoring a National Treasure, Illiam Dhone is an honour. We cannot wait to hear the results of this exciting research and look forward to seeing the painting on display once again.”
To support the study of the painting and the charity’s wider work, donate today at www.manxnationalheritage.im/donate.
William Christian, known in Manx as Illiam Dhone (Brown William), famously led an uprising that seized control of the Isle of Man in 1651, towards the end of fourteen years of almost continuous war, at the centre of which was a struggle between Royalists supporting King Charles I and Parliamentarians who sought to curb royal power.
Sometimes referred to as the English Civil War, these conflicts had wracked the neighbouring islands and resulted in brutal fighting in Scotland, Ireland and Wales as well as England. Christian’s uprising removed the need for Parliament’s intended conquest of the Isle of Man and is credited with preserving the island’s unique laws and system of government.
In 1651, the Isle of Man was ruled by James Stanley, Lord of Man, Baron Strange and 7th Earl of Derby. The Manx called him “Yn Stanlagh Mooar,” or “the Great Stanley.” Stanley first supported Charles I, and then after the latter’s execution in 1649, his son, Charles II, and between 1643 and 1651 lived on the island and oversaw an extensive programme of modernisation and improvement of its defences. In 1648 he made William Christian receiver-general, or treasurer, of the island, and in 1651 added command of its militia to his duties, shortly before leaving to join Charles II in England.
When Stanley was captured after the Battle of Worcester, his wife, the Countess Charlotte, hoped to negotiate with Parliament for his release. The Manx people were already angered by changes in land tenure introduced by Stanley, which affected their ability as tenants to bequeath land and homes to their children, and others resented having to provide food and accommodation to Royalist troops. Christian and other Manx leaders, fearing the Countess would sell the country “into the hands of Parliament,” made plans to seize the island’s forts, and with the invasion fleet in sight, the Manx took all of their targets except for Peel Castle and Castle Rushen.
Christian’s supporters negotiated directly with the Parliamentary forces, who were allowed to enter the island unopposed in return for recognising Manx “laws and liberties.” Countess Charlotte surrendered in November of 1651, less than a month after her husband had been executed.
And so the Isle of Man’s brief direct involvement in one of the bloodiest wars fought in Britain and Ireland came to an end. Manx institutions such as Tynwald were left in place, the ancient land tenure customs were restored and Christian remained receiver-general, becoming governor in 1656.
But Christian’s luck turned in 1658 when he was accused by a new English governor of misappropriating funds related to church lands. The charges were not proved, but he left the island for England.
In 1658 Oliver Cromwell died and Charles II returned from exile. After his coronation in 1661, an Act of General Pardon and Indemnity was passed to protect Cromwell’s supporters from prosecution. Believing he was thus safe, Christian returned to the Isle of Man, but was arrested on the direct orders of Charles Stanley, the 8th Earl of Derby, and charged with treason – not against the king, but against the Earl’s late father, Yn Stanlagh Mooar.
Christian refused to plead in court, perhaps believing it to be a cynical show-trial, and instead wrote to the King seeking protection under the Act of Indemnity. His petition reached the King too late to affect the outcome and he was executed by firing squad on 2 January 1663. Charles later confirmed that the Act of Indemnity — and his rule — did extend to the Isle of Man and restored confiscated property, including the estate of Ronaldsway, to the Christian family.
William Christian, known in Manx as Illiam Dhone (Brown William)
Lynsey Clague BA (Hons) MCIPR
Communications Manager – Manx National Heritage
T: 01624 648032